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What is a bibliography?

The bibliography is a list of sources used in research.  It is considered the “footprints” of the project because anyone should be able to use it to find the sources actually used by the researcher. There is a specific format, or style, in which a bibliography should appear.

Which bibliographic style is acceptable in History Fair projects?

History Fair accepts either the Turabian (Chicago Manual of Style) or MLA bibliographic style although Turabian is preferred by historians.  There are a number of online services that will do the formatting–keep in mind, they only work if the correct information has been noted at the point in which it was used!  Take note cards or a bibliography sheet every time research is done so that the information can be immediately noted.

The annotated bibliography should be divided between primary and secondary sources.

What are the books and online services that can be consulted for bibliographic styles?

Use Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations or Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

Online services:

  • Citation Machine
  • NoodleTools – we HIGHLY recommend that History Fair teachers take advantage of this free opportunity.  Register, review the webinar, and you and your students are on your way to stress-free, pro-active, effective research!

What is an annotation?

An annotation summarizes the source and describes how that source was useful to your project.  Keep a working annotated bibliography during the research process because it will be challenging, if not impossible, to try and remember this information once you have finished your project.  Lack of annotations can significantly damage a student’s evaluation in the competition.

Do you have sample annotations?

“The biography described the life of Florence Kelley through the eyes of one of her young co-workers. The author described her as a very determined individual and detailed how she tried to enforce the new Factories and Workshop law and the trouble she had enforcing it.”

“This book contains essays by both BPP members and outsiders, who examine the rise, activities, and fall of the BPP.  It gave me a good idea of the ideology of the party, and some of the underlying reasons for FBI retaliation.

“This article talks about the difference in opinions between different groups of Jews at the NCJW convention and how the NCJW got around the difference and was able to stay successful.  This article was important to my project because it talks about the NCJW’s struggles, and not just how great it was.”

Example Annotated Bibliography

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